Nobody understands REST or HTTP

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Since I’ve posted this, I’ve refined a few of my positions on things. Everyone learns and grows, and while I still stand by most of what I said, I specifically don’t agree that versioning the media type is how to properly version APIs. Hypermedia APIs should not actually use explicit versioning, but I’d rather see a version in the URI with HATEOAS than no HATEOAS and versioned media types. I’ve been meaning to update this post and write more, but alas, my work on Get some REST has taken priority. I don’t have a HN account, so feel free to email me with any thoughts or questions!

Furthermore, everything in engineering is ALWAYS a trade-off. I primarily wish that more people understood the tools that HTTP provides them with, and made an informed choice, rather than cargo-culting what they’ve seen others do.

Update: Part II of this post is here. Check it out, and there’s an announcement at the end!

Update: Please note that REST is over. Hypermedia API is the new nomenclature.

The more that I’ve learned about web development, the more that I’ve come to appreciate the thoroughness and thoughtfulness of the authors of the HTTP RFC and Roy Fielding’s dissertation. It seems like the answers to most problems come down to “There’s a section of the spec for that.” Now, obviously, they’re not infallible, and I’m not saying that there’s zero room for improvement. But it really disappoints me when people don’t understand the way that a given issue is supposed to be solved, and so they make up a partial solution that solves their given case but doesn’t jive well with the way that everything else works. There are valid criticisms of the specs, but they have to come from an informed place about what the spec says in the first place.

Let’s talk about a few cases where either REST or HTTP (which is clearly RESTful in its design) solves a common web development problem.

I need to design my API

This one is a bit more general, but the others build off of it, so bear with me.

The core idea of REST is right there in the name: “Representational State Transfer” It’s about transferring representations of the state… of resources. Okay, so one part isn’t in the name. But still, let’s break this down.


From Fielding’s dissertation:

The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource. Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. “today’s weather in Los Angeles”), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author’s hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time.

When we interact with a RESTful system, we’re interacting with a set of resources. Clients request resources from the server in a variety of ways. But the key thing here is that resources are nouns. So a RESTful API consists of a set of URIs that map entities in your system to endpoints, and then you use HTTP itself for the verbs. If your URLs have action words in them, you’re doing it wrong. Let’s look at an example of this, from the early days of Rails. When Rails first started messing around with REST, the URLs looked like this:


If you use Rails today, you’ll note that the corresponding URL is this:


Why? Well, it’s because the ‘show’ is unnecessary; you’re performing a GET request, and that demonstrates that you want to show that resource. It doesn’t need to be in the URL.

A digression about actions

Sometimes, you need to perform some sort of action, though. Verbs are useful. So how’s this fit in? Let’s consider the example of transferring money from one Account to another. You might decided to build a URI like this:

POST /accounts/1/transfer/500.00/to/2

to transfer $500 from Account 1 to Account 2. But this is wrong! What you really need to do is consider the nouns. You’re not transferring money, you’re creating a Transaction resource:

POST /transactions HTTP/1.1
Host: <snip, and all other headers>


Got it? So then, it returns the URI for your new Transaction:

HTTP/1.1 201 OK
Date: Sun, 3 Jul 2011 23:59:59 GMT
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 12345


Whoah, HATEOS! Also, it may or may not be a good idea to return this JSON as the body; the important thing is that we have the Location header which tells us where our new resource is. If we give a client the ID, they might try to construct their own URL, and the URI is a little redundant, since we have one in the Location. Regardless, I’m leaving that JSON there, because that’s the way I typed it first. I’d love to hear your thoughts on this if you feel strongly one way or the other.

EDIT: I’ve since decided that yes, including the URI is a bad idea. The Location header makes much more sense. More on this in Part ii, yet to come.

Anyway, so now we can GET our Transaction:

GET /transactions/1 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

and the response:

HTTP/1.1 blah blah blah


So we know it’s working. We can continue to poll the URI and see when our transaction is finished, or if it failed, or whatever. Easy! But it’s about manipulating those nouns.


You’ll notice a pair of headers in the above HTTP requests and responses: Accept and Content-Type. These describe the different ‘representation’ of any given resource. From Fielding:

REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant.A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity).

So /accounts/1 represents a resource. But it doesn’t include the form that the resource takes. That’s what these two headers are for.

This is also why adding .html to the end of your URLs is kinda silly. If I request /accounts/1.html with an Accept header of application/json, then I’ll get JSON. The Content-Type header is the server telling us what kind of representation it’s sending back as well. The important thing, though, is that a given resource can have many different representations. Ideally, there should be one unambiguous source of information in a system, and you can get different representations using Accept.

State and Transfer

This is more about the way HTTP is designed, so I’ll just keep this short: Requests are designed to be stateless, and the server holds all of the state for its resources. This is important for caching and a few other things, but it’s sort of out of the scope of this post.

Okay. With all of that out of the way, let’s talk about some more specific problems that REST/HTTP solve.

I want my API to be versioned

The first thing that people do when they want a versioned API is to shove a /v1/ in the URL. THIS IS BAD!!!!!1. Accept solves this problem. What you’re really asking for is “I’d like the version two representation of this resource.” So use accept!

Here’s an example:

GET /accounts/1 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/vnd.steveklabnik-v2+json

You’ll notice a few things: we have a + in our MIME type, and before it is a bunch of junk that wasn’t there before. It breaks down into three things: vnd, my name, and v2. You can guess what v2 means, but what about vnd. It’s a Vendor MIME Type. After all, we don’t really want just any old JSON, we want my specific form of JSON. This lets us still have our one URL to represent our resource, yet version everything appropriately.

I got a comment from Avdi Grimm about this, too:

Here’s an article you might find interesting: author points out that MIMETypes can have parameters, which means you can actually have a mimetype that looks like; version=1.0Sadly, Rails does not (yet) understand this format.

I’d like my content to be displayed in multiple languages

This is related, but a little different. What about pages in different languages? Again, we have a question of representation, not one of content. /en/whatever is not appropriate here. Turns out, there’s a header for that: Accept-Language. Respect the headers, and everything works out.

Oh, and I should say this, too: this doesn’t solve the problem of “I’d like to read this article in Spanish, even though I usually browse in English.” Giving your users the option to view your content in different ways is a good thing. Personally, I’d consider this to fall out in two ways:

I’d like my content to have a mobile view

Sounds like I’m beating a dead horse, but again: it’s a representation question. In this case, you’d like to vary the response by the User-Agent: give one that’s mobile-friendly. There’s a whole list of mobile best practices that the w3c recommends, but the short of it is this: the User-Agent should let you know that you’re dealing with a mobile device. For example, here’s the first iPhone UA:

Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; U; CPU like Mac OS X; en) AppleWebKit/420+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/3.0 Mobile/1A543a Safari/419.3

Then, once detecting you have a mobile User-Agent, you’d give back a mobile version of the site. Hosting it on a subdomain is a minor sin, but really, like I said above, this is really a question of representation, and so having two URLs that point to the same resource is kinda awkward.

Whatever you do, for the love of users, please don’t detect these headers, then redirect your users to, at the root. One of my local news websites does this, and it means that every time I try to follow a link from Twitter in my mobile browser, I don’t see their article, I see their homepage. It’s infuriating.

I’d like to hide some of my content

Every once in a while, you see a story like this: Local paper boasts ultimate passive-agressive paywall policy. Now, I find paywalls distasteful, but this is not the way to do it. There are technological means to limit content on the web: making users be logged-in to read things, for example.

When this was discussed on Hacker News, here’s what I had to say:


I presume if I had an unattended roadside vegetable stand with a cash-box, that I’d be able to prosecute someone who took vegetables without paying, certainly if they also made off with the cash-box. Why is this different on the web? And if a written prohibition has no legal standing, why do so many companies pay lawyers to write click-through “terms of service” agreements?


Why is this different on the web?Let’s go through what happens when I visit a web site. I type a URL in my bar, and hit enter. My web browser makes a request via http to a server, and the server inspects the request, determines if I should see the content or not, and returns either a 200 if I am allowed, and a 403 if I’m not. So, by viewing their pages, I’m literally asking permission, and being allowed.It sounds to me like a misconfiguration of their server; it’s not doing what they want it to.

This is an example of where the spec is obviously deficient, and so something had to be done.

As the web grew, AJAXy ‘web applications’ started to become more and more the norm. And so applications wanted to provide deep-linking capabilities to users, but there’s a problem: they couldn’t manipulate the URL with Javascript without causing a redirect. They could manipulate the anchor, though. You know, that part after the #. So, Google came up with a convention: Ajax Fragments. This fixed the problem in the short term, but then the spec got fixed in the long term: pushState. This lets you still provide a nice deep URL to your users, but not have that awkward #!.

In this case, there was a legitimate technical issue with the spec, and so it’s valid to invent something. But then the standard improved, and so people should stop using #! as HTML5 gains browser support.

In conclusion

Seriously, most of the problems that you’re solving are social, not technical. The web is decades old at this point, most people have considered these kinds of problems in the past. That doesn’t mean that they always have the right answer, but they usually do have an answer, and it’d behoove you to know what it is before you invent something on your own.