Devise: ActionController::RoutingError (No Route Matches [GET] /users/sign_out)

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Just a quick note about Devise, and its RESTful implications. I ran across this error today, and thought I’d share.

I was trying to log out, so I hit the normal route for such things with my browser. Here’s the error:

Devise: ActionController::RoutingError (No Route Matches [GET] /users/sign_out)

Uhhhhh what? I run rake routes…

$ rake routes | grep destroy_user
    destroy_user_session DELETE /users/sign_out(.:format)      {:action=>"destroy", :controller=>"devise/sessions"}

So, wtf? Well, there is that pesky DELETE… Googling for this error led me to this commit. Looks like they changed some behavior, you can’t just go to that page anymore and log out. Bummer. But why?

HTTP verbs: transfer semantics, not state

As I’ve been doing my research for my book on REST, I’ve been doing a lot of reading about HTTP. And I kept coming across these kinds of curious comments in the spec. For example, sec 9.6: PUT:

HTTP/1.1 does not define how a PUT method affects the state of an origin server.

Uhhh… what? Don’t we all know that PUT means that we should be updating a resource? And that we have to send the whole representation?

When trying to get to the bottom of this, I came across this comment from Fielding:

FWIW, PUT does not mean store. I must have repeated that a million times in webdav and related lists. HTTP defines the intended semantics of the communication – the expectations of each party. The protocol does not define how either side fulfills those expectations, and it makes damn sure it doesn’t prevent a server from having absolute authority over its own resources. Also, resources are known to change over time, so if a server accepts an invalid Atom entry via PUT one second and then immediately thereafter decides to change it to a valid entry for later GETs, life is grand.

Soooooooo wtf?

Let’s take a look again at what PUT does:

The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the supplied Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to an already existing resource, the enclosed entity SHOULD be considered as a modified version of the one residing on the origin server. If the Request-URI does not point to an existing resource, and that URI is capable of being defined as a new resource by the requesting user agent, the origin server can create the resource with that URI.

It says “store,” Roy says “I don’t mean store.” Uhhhh…

Here’s my ‘translated for the laymen’ version of that quote:

PUT means ‘I’d like to later GET something at this URI.’ If something is already there, update it. If there isn’t anything there, then create it.

That’s it. It’s talking about the semantics of what goes on: create or update. It doesn’t actually say anything about how this is implemented. But if you PUT something to a URI, a GET needs to 200 afterwards. So what’s the difference between PUT and POST? HTTP sec 9.5: POST:

The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it, a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted, or a record is subordinate to a database.The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.

Again, it’s really vague about what it does. With POST, it basically says “You have no idea what a POST does.” What you do know is the semantics of the action, POST ‘requests a new subordinate, but it might not create something.’

The main difference is actually mentioned here:

Methods can also have the property of “idempotence” in that (aside from error or expiration issues) the side-effects of N > 0 identical requests is the same as for a single request. The methods GET, HEAD, PUT and DELETE share this property.

Semantics again. PUT is idempotent, and POST is not. They could both be used for creation, they could both be used for updating. With POST, you don’t need a URI, and PUT specifies a specfic one. That’s it. Nowhere in those two sentences states ‘store in the database,’ nowhere does it says ‘full representation,’ nowhere does it say ‘POST is create and PUT is update.’ However you fulfill these semantics are up to you, but the semantics are what’s important.

So wtf does this have to do with Devise?

The issue is that Devise’s old semantics were wrong. A GET to /users/sign_out shouldn’t modify state: HTTP sec 9.1.1: Safe Methods:

In particular, the convention has been established that the GET and HEAD methods SHOULD NOT have the significance of taking an action other than retrieval. These methods ought to be considered “safe”.

When Devise used GETs to log you out, that was a violation of the semantics of GET. Here’s the interesting part, though: Since POST is a super generic ‘unsafe action’ method, you could also use POST to represent a logging out. POST also has unsafe, non-idempotent semantics. DELETE specifically says delete, and POST says ‘any action,’ and ‘delete’ is a subset of ‘any action.’ So DELETE is better, but POST is not wrong, categorically.

Fixing the ‘bug’

So how do we take care of this? Personally, I did the pragmatic thing. In /config/initializers/devise.rb

config.sign_out_via = :delete
config.sign_out_via = :get if Rails.env.test?

Now, during normal operations, we have our usual DELETE semantics, but in our test environment, we can just hit it with GET. This way we don’t have to hit a page, use Javascript to make a link with DELETE, and hit the page. This keeps my test times down, means I can run my tests with rack-test and not Selenium, and still gives me a high level of confidence that my tests work properly, even though it’s technically not the exact same thing as production.

In conclusion

The HTTP spec defines semantics but not implementation details. Semantics should be obeyed. But in testing, obeying them 100% may not be worth it.